A disulfide bond or bridge is derived from the coupling of thiol group, it's a single covalent bond. There's connectivity like C-S-S-C, hence it's also called SS- bond. The connection is also called as persulfide and this terminology is exclusively used in bioinorganic.
The thiol or mercaptans is a compound in organic chemistry, which contains group composed by a sulphur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). This function group is traditionally referred to as mercaptans. Also it's called as thiol group and sulfhydryl group.
Sulfone is the chemical compound of sulphur, containing two carbon atoms bonding with a sulfonyl functional group. In this compound, sulphur atom is double bonded to oxygen twice.
Sulfoxide or sulphoxide can be considered as oxidized sulfides. It contains two carbon atoms attached with sulfinyl functional group. Alkaline is the sulphoxide which occurs in nature.
Just like sulfide, thioether also is a functional group with structure- R1-S-R2 . This compound also has nasty smell, just like other sulphur containing compounds. Ether is the analogue compound to thioether, which contains.
In the starting, the blue indophenin was considered as the result of reaction with benzene which forms blue dye when mixed with isatin. Viktor Meyer discovered the substance from benzene, which was responsible for the reaction. This compound was thiophene.