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Steel


Introduction

steel is an alloy of Iron or carbon. It contains 2% carbon and 1% manages and small amount of silicon, phosphorous, oxygen and sulphur. Steel is used in every field of our life like in cars, washing machine and refrigerators, cargo ships and surgical scalpels. Steel is made via one of two basic routes. These are as follows:

Integrated- This route uses raw materials and scrap to create steel

Electric and Furnace(EAF)- As compared to Integrated method, EAF method is much easier and faster because it only requires scrap steel. Re-melted is introduced with some other additions and recycled steel introduced into a furnace to produce the end product.

There are more than 3,500 different grades of steel with different chemical, physical and environmental properties. steel is not a single product. There areapproximately 75% of modern steels that have been developed in the past 20 years. If Eiffel Tower were to be rebuilt today, the engineers would only need one-third of the steel that was originally used.

Production

India is the 4th producer of crude steel in the world.In 2013, 1,606 million tonnes (mmt) of steel were produced. In 2014, steel production was reached on 1,665 million tonnes(MT). Steel is one of the major category in metals for import and export. Steel are freely importable and exportable as per the extant policy. Steel Sector contributes around 2 percent of the country's gross domestic product and employees over 600,000 people

Top companies for producing steel in India are: Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited, Tata Steel, JSW Steel, Steel Authority of India Limited and so on.

In 2014, China was world’s largest crude steel producer(823MT) followed by Japan (110.7 mt), the USA (88.3 mt) and India(83.2) was on 4th position. India is expected to become 2nd largest producer of steel in world soon.

Steel is the world's most recycled product. EAF method of steel production can use exclusively recycled steel. The properties of steel remains unchanged no matter how many times the steel is recycled.

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Metal

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Minerals

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Chemicals