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Titanium is a chemical element with atomic number 22 and symbol Ti. It was discovered by Reverend William Gregor, an English pastor in 1791. Pure titanium was first produced by Matthew, an American metallurgist in 1910. Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the earth’s crust. It occurs in the minerals limonite and also present in many iron ores. It is commercially produced by reducing titanium (IV) chloride with magnesium.


Titanium is as strong as steel and twice strong as aluminium but it is 45% lighter than steel and heavier than aluminium. Titanium metal connects with bone, so it has found surgical applications such as in joint replacements and tooth implants.

It is hard, strong and shiny metal. Titanium has low density, good strength and easily fabricated with excellent corrosion resistance. It is the only metal that burns in nitrogen. Titanium metal is not found as the free element. It is present in meteorites and has been detected in the sun.


Titanium is used by power plant because of their resistance to corrosion. Because titanium has excellent resistance to corrosion in seawater, so it is used in desalination plants and to protect the hulls of ships and other structures exposed to sea water. Titanium and Titanium alloys are used in airplanes, missiles and rockets where strength and resistance to high temperatures are important. Unfortunately, high cost of titanium has limited its widespread use. It is also used in golf clubs, laptops, bicycles and crutches.


Titanium occurs in the minerals limonite, sphere and rutile and also present in many iron ores. It is generally produced commercially by reducing titanium (IV), chloride with magnesium. Titanium is found in the earth’s crust and used to underpin topics on useful materials from the earth and on the extraction of metals.