sulphur combines with almost all elements and mostly forms compounds in oxidation states like- 2(sulfide, S2-), +4 (sulfite, SO32-), and +6 (sulfate, SO42-). sulphur comes at second position in exhibiting the bonding of an atom to another atom, after Carbon. Therefore some compounds of sulphur have unusual feature, with ring systems and chain structures. Follow are some considerable compounds and compounds group of sulphur-
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-
Some other names of hydrogen sulfide are- sulphureted hydrogen, stinkdamp etc. Naturally produced in the waste of organic substances which contains sulphur. Hydrogen sulfide is largely obtained in the removal of sulphur from petroleum. Also often found in the vapours of mineral waters and volcanoes.
It's extremely poisonous and a colourless gas. It is broadly used as an analytical reagent, in chemical laboratories.
Hydrogen sulfide is responsible for the characteristic odour of rotten eggs.
Inorganic sulfides which are Ionic compounds of sulphur and any metal (except gold and platinum) contain negatively charged sulfide ion S2-. Such sulfides are considered as salts of hydrogen sulfide. Some inorganic sulfides are important ores of metals as iron, lead, copper, nickel, zinc and cobalt.
sulphur Dioxide (SO2)
It's a colourless poisonous gas, primarily used as a precursor of sulphur trioxide (SO3) then sulphuric acid (H2SO4). Also used as industrial reducing agent and bleach. Some other application of sulphur dioxide are like use in fruit ripening and food preservation.
Reacting with all halogen elements, sulphur gives a wide range of various compounds which finds uses in various industries. Like- mustard gas is a compound of sulphur and ehtylene. Also oily products are its compound which formed by its reaction with unsaturated acids. These compounds are basic components of lubricants.
sulphur's reaction with fluorine gives sulphur hexafluorides, an important gas used as insulator in different electrical devices. When combined with chlorine it gives chlorides like disulphur dichloride. This disulphur dichloride (S2Cl2) is used in the manufacturing of various chemical products.
sulphur combines with both halogen and oxygen atoms in order to produce compounds which are called by using terms 'thionyl' and 'sulphuryl' (thionyl for SO, sulphuryl for SO2). Both Thionyl chloride (SOCl2) and sulphuryl chloride (SO2Cl2) are good examples of such compounds. Thionyl chloride is used in organic chemistry. sulphuryl chloride is used in preparing compounds containing sulphur and chlorine or one of them.
sulphur forms acids which are very important to the chemical industry. For example sulphurous acid H2SO3 which is formed by combining sulphur dioxide to water. Sodium sulfite Na2SO3 is the most important salt of sulphurous acid and used as reducing agent in papar pulp manufacturing, also used in various application like photography, oxygen removal from boiler feedwater etc.
sulphur trioxide reaction with water produces sulphuric acid which is very important compound used in pigments, detergents, dyes, fertilizers, inorganic salts, explosives, drugs and esters.
Organic compounds of sulphur creates important parts of organic substance. For instance- sulphur with amino acid are basic components of enzymes, hormones and coenzymes. Also synthetic organic compounds of sulphur are very important like agent used in rubber manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, solvents etc.
There are also some unpleasant odors caused by sulphur containing compounds like "skunk stink", "garlic", ethyl and methyl mercaptan. However it's not with all sulphur compound.
Sulphur when mixed with iron or zinc, at room temperature, it shows no reaction. It is only high temperature and heat they react rapidly. Zinc sulfide and Iron sulfide are quite stable compounds. In the case of zinc, reaction is almost explosively. Following are the equation of both cases.
The polymer- sulphur nitride, which is made up from tetrasulphur tetranitride (S4N4), has metallic, electrical and optical properties.